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  1. Why do I need to have my child individually tested prior to starting the R+ remediation?
  2. What is dyslexia or a language-based learning disability?
  3. What characteristics accompany dyslexia?
  4. Why is dyslexia discouraging and frustrating?
  5. How does the child with dyslexia feel?
  6. What is phonological awareness?
  7. Why is a deficiency in phonological awareness considered the cardinal sign of a language-based learning disability?
  8. Why is phonological awareness essential in learning to read?
  9. What causes individual differences in phonological awareness?
  10. Is direct instruction in phonological awareness necessary for children with problems in reading and writing?
  11. How are reading, writing and spelling related?

1) Why do I need to have my child individually tested prior to starting the R+ remediation?

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The R+System 85 lesson plan journey requires a language analysis before the teacher or practitioner can begin the remediation. The person delivering the remediation will need to know how this individual processess language in every detail.


The individual testing that is done when you first sign up with Remediation Plus is critical in order for us to accurately design our interventions to meet your child's academic needs. All children differ in their strengths and weaknesses- the initial testing allows us to individualize our lessons and focus on remediating your child's specific problem areas. The testing is diagnostic and assesses decoding (reading), encoding (spelling) and phonological awareness. Parents will receive an in-depth consultation and report based on the results of the tests. Parents will also be given an overview of the plans and goals set for the student over the intervention period.

2) What is dyslexia or a language-based learning disability?

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The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek "dys" (poor or inadequate) and "lexis" (words or language). Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by problems in expressive or receptive, oral or written language. Problems may emerge in reading, spelling, writing, speaking, listening, or mathematics. Dyslexia results from differences in the structure and function of the brain. Although visual and auditory processing problems may exist, language-processing difficulties distinguish dyslexics as a group. This means that the person with dyslexia has problems translating language to thought (as in listening or reading) or thought to language (as in writing or speaking).


Dyslexia is not the result of low intelligence. An unexpected gap exists between learning aptitude and achievement in school. The problem is not behavioural, psychological motivational, or social and people with dyslexia do not "see backward."


Dyslexia is not a disease- it has no cure. People with dyslexia are unique, each having individual strengths and weaknesses. Dyslexia describes a different kind of mind, often gifted and productive, that learns differently. Dyslexics often show special talent in areas that require visual, spatial and motor integration. Many dyslexics are creative and have talent in areas such as art, athletics, architecture, graphics, electronics, mechanics, drama or engineering.


Every student will learn to read and spell with the R+ intervention.

3) What characteristics accompany dyslexia?

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Few dyslexics exhibit all the signs of the disorder. Some common signs are:

  • lack of awareness of sounds in words, rhymes, or sequence of sounds and syllables in words
  • difficulty decoding words - word identification
  • difficulty encoding words - spelling
  • poor sequencing of numbers. of letters in words, when read or written, e.g.: b-d- sing- sign; left-felt; soiled-solid- scared-sacred; 12-21
  • difficulty expressing thoughts in written form
  • delayed spoken language
  • imprecise or incomplete interpretation of language that is heard
  • difficulty in expressing thoughts orally
  • problems with reading comprehension due to poor decoding
  • confusion about right or left handedness
  • difficulty in handwriting
  • difficulty in mathematics - often related to sequencing of steps or directionality or the language of mathematics

4) Why is dyslexia discouraging and frustrating?

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Most dyslexic preschoolers are happy and well adjusted before they start school.


Their emotional problems begin when early reading instruction does not match individual learning styles. Over the years frustration mounts as classmates surpass the dyslexic student, first in reading, then in other areas that are hampered by the lack of language skills. Dyslexic children are ashamed and angered when they are not able to meet the expectations of their teachers, parents, and peers despite their best efforts. Parents and teachers often confuse the disability with a lack of effort or intelligence on the student's part. This can cause a great deal of stress or tension at school and at home.

5) How does the child with dyslexia feel?

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Anxiety is the most frequent emotional symptom reported by dyslexics. They become fearful due to the failures and confusion experienced in school. This anxiety causes the dyslexic individual to avoid schoolwork and assignments. Parents and teachers may misinterpret this avoidance behaviour as laziness. However, this avoidance is related more to anxiety and confusion than to apathy. A key component of the Remediation Plus System is that the approach is emotionally sound. The lessons are designed to ensure that the student's success level remains high. Material is repeated and reinforced until the student reaches mastery. This way the student does not become overwhelmed when new material is introduced. The process is multisensory cumulative, systematic and sequential. We establish a strong foundation upon which to build further knowledge.

6) What is phonological awareness?

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Phonological awareness is the ability to notice, think about or manipulate the individual sounds in words. Phonological awareness is a skill and can be improved with direct training and practice.

* Phonological awareness and phonics are not the same.

7) Why is a deficiency in phonological awareness considered the cardinal sign of a language-based learning disability?

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A deficiency in phonological awareness is the cardinal sign of a language-based learning disability because dyslexic individuals are consistently more impaired than those individuals without language problems. Also, measures of phonological awareness taken in kindergarten are the best predictor of the rate of growth in word reading ability in later school years.

8) Why is phonological awareness essential in learning to read?

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The letters in print correspond to the phonemes in words- therefore, learning how the alphabet is used to represent the sounds in words is important to the growth of reading skills. An individual must learn the letter/sound correspondences to "sound out" new words. Also, in order to understand how the alphabet works, one must have a conscious awareness that words in oral language are composed of sound segments (phonemes) that can be represented by letters of the alphabet. When phonological awareness and decoding are low, reading comprehension can be virtually non-existent.

9) What causes individual differences in phonological awareness?

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Individual differences in phonological awareness are determined by early pre-school linguistic experiences (e.g. exposure to reading, nursery rhymes, etc.) and one's genetic endowment. However, phonological awareness is independent of intelligence! A person may be highly intelligent and still lacking in phonological awareness.

10) Is direct instruction in phonological awareness necessary for children with problems in reading and writing?

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Direct instruction in phonological awareness is necessary for individuals with problems in reading and writing and is an essential part of the remedial awareness process at Remediation Plus. Phonological awareness training is done by explicit instruction in spelling patterns, word comparison activities and the use of segmenting and blending drills.

11) How are reading, writing and spelling related?

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Reading, writing, and spelling are strongly related language activities. In order to gain meaning from words in print, students must first decode, or read the words. To do this, they must learn that there are letters and letter combinations, which stand for speech sounds. They need to recognize the structure of words and the structure of language. Encoding, or spelling, is the opposite of decoding. It asks the student to translate the speech sounds into letters. Advanced spelling is more complex than reading because it requires more complete knowledge of the written word. The student must also learn the rules and generalizations governing English. In writing, the student must integrate motor skills, punctuation, grammar, spelling, usage, and organization and sequencing of thoughts. That is why the spelling and writing skills of a student with dyslexia often lag behind his or her reading skills.


These interrelationships between reading, spelling, and writing suggest that teaching must incorporate all forms of language into instruction, using special techniques that build associations between speech and print.

What People Are Saying

"..Our students have been very successful in the short period of time that we have been delivering the program. The time factor along with the success rate is a positive step toward Literacy in the high school setting..."


Maureen Kennedy, Instructional Leader and Lynn Bridges, Vice Principal
Ottawa Technical Learning Centre

"..We give Remediation Plus an A+; it is a powerful tool to refine your teaching methods for both emergent and struggling readers..."


St. Paul's Education Regional Division, Alberta

"..Remediation Plus has been a great experience. I have witnessed first hand grade 3 students who could not read or write, gain confidence in themselves and learn to love reading..."


Andrea Nardi
Lydia Lois Beardy Memorial School in Wunnumin Lake, ON

"..I believe that the program is so effective because of the emphasis on phonological awareness training, explicit phonics, and multisensory learning..."


Marsha Grantham, M.Sc.Ed. Reg. and
Mary-Jane Grantham, CASLPO Speech-Language Pathologist
Reading Gym, District School Board of Niagara St. Catharines, Ontario

"..I get nothing put positive comments from the kids, how it makes a huge difference in their reading and spelling. I have not had one student that has not shown exceptional progress..."


Janet Dorken
Ottawa Carlton District School Board

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